What is LPG?
- LPG is the acronym for Liquefied Petroleum Gas
- It is obtained from natural gas processing and petroleum refining
- LPG is the generic name of mixtures, mainly of Butane (C4H10) and Propane (C3H8)
- It is an excellent energy source because of its availability, portability, environmental benefits and versatility
- It is also of superior quality and is suitable for Industrial, Commercial & Domestic use
The Process: LPG distillation from crude
Properties of LPG
- LPG is in gaseous form at ambient temperature (250 ⁰C) & in liquid form under pressure
- It is colorless and non-toxic
- It is heavier than air and lighter than water
- It is odourless, however Ethyl Mercaptan is added as an odorant for leakage detection
- It has a low boiling point “range” of “ > - 40 ⁰C ” and flash point of “ - 104 ⁰C ”
- It has a narrow flammability range of 1.8% to 10% in air
- It can cause severe cold burns to the skin due to rapid vaporization & lowering of temperature
- Approximate minimum ignition temperature range is “ 410 ⁰C to 580 ⁰C ”
Usage of LPG
LPG has over 1000 types of known applications. Worldwide, billions of people currently use LPG and depend on it. Be it in their commercial business, industry, transportation or farming, power generation and cooking.
Only LPG can serve such a wide variety of uses such as cooking fuel for a family in South Africa and a community kitchen in India, refrigeration for a shop owner in Brazil, Auto LPG for Taxis in Tokyo, and from welding for car manufacturers in Germany to flame weeding for a rancher in Texas etc; LPG even powers the Olympic torch. This makes it as the world’s most multi-purpose energy source.
Advantages of LPG
- High energy value
- Clean Burning
- Excellent in flame control
- Easy to store without spillage
- Environment-friendly fuel with sulphur-free emissions
- Used for variety of applications
- Reduces the effects of corrosion
- Avoids scaling
- Minimal heat loss
- LPG was started in 1950’s by Burmah Shell & Stanvac
- India is also the 2rd Largest consumer of Domestic LPG in the World
- Demand of LPG increases at 7 to 10% per annum
- 30-40% of demand is met through Imports
- Consumption is expected to rise 20 million tonne, backed by expanding consumer base in urban areas
- PSU OMCs (IOCL, BPCL and HPCL) together have 24.54 crore customers registered with them out of which 24.28 crore customers are in the domestic category.
- All these customers are being served by OMCs through 18,950 LPG distributors of PSU OMCs. (besides parallel marketers of LPG)
- The LPG coverage of the country estimated on the basis of active domestic connections and estimated household is around 75.5%
- PSU OMCs have a total of 189 LPG bottling plants all over India with rated bottling capacity of around 16.4 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA).
- LPG is also being widely used in Automobiles and India has a network of more than 1100 Auto LPG stations out of which 675 are of PSU OMCs.
- LPG is an exceptional energy source because of its origin, availability, benefits & applications
- It plays a pivotal role in the transition towards a more secure, sustainable and competitive energy model around the globe
- Global availability and popularity of LPG has been increasing by the day and is also resulting in the increased usage in many countries
- In all markets, wide varieties of practices are adopted in Sales, Marketing and Distribution of the products and associated services
- Besides being used extensively for Domestic, Industrial and Commercial applications, LPG is also used globally as a fuel for automobiles.
- More than 26 million vehicles run on Auto LPG globally, supported by close to 71,000 LPG Filling Stations.
LPG & Natural Gas Comparison
|Butane (60-70%) and Propane (30-40%)||Methane (98%) and Ethane (2%)|
|By-product of cracking process during crude-oil refining||Obtained from condensate wells, oil wells and coal bed methane wells|
|Denser than air, at a relative density of 1.5219 to 1||Less dense than air, at a relative density of 0.5537 to 1|
|For a proper combustion, it requires an air to gas ratio of approx. 25:1||For a proper combustion, it requires an air to gas ration of approx. 10:1|
|Higher energy content with 93.2MJ/m3||Lower energy content with 38.7MJ/m3|
- Ensure work on fixed LPG installations, whether new or being modified, is carried out by a Licensed or Authorized Gas Installer
- Keep LPG appliances and fitting in an excellent condition with timely service and regular checks
- Use parts and equipment, manufactured and approved for LPG
- Look for the gas appliance Certification Label on every appliance
- Remember to turn off the gas supply and ventilate before attempting to reignite an LPG appliance that fails to ignite immediately
- Get the cylinders inspected by an Authorized LPG Distributor at least once in 5 years
- Stamp the last inspection date on the cylinder collar, neck or footing
- Attempt to tamper with the safety valve or other cylinder fittings
- Apply undue force to open or close the main cylinder valve
- Hesitate to consult a Licensed Gas Installer / Mechanic
- Connect LPG appliances to any other gas supply systems
- Use any gas appliance in a moving vehicle